Latest topics
» Hundreds of Ancient "Giant Jars" Found In Laos?
Today at 1:27 am by PurpleSkyz

» UFO News ~ Bizarre UFOs Sighted over Santa Fe, Mexico City plus MORE
Today at 1:24 am by PurpleSkyz

Today at 1:15 am by PurpleSkyz

» Ramazzini Institute Rat Study Confirms National Toxicology Project Results: Cancers From Mobile Phone Frequencies
Today at 1:10 am by PurpleSkyz

» How YouTube Acts as a Conspiracy Conduit
Today at 12:46 am by PurpleSkyz

» SOS: Q-squared Delivers a Set of Serious Messages About the POTUS
Today at 12:43 am by PurpleSkyz

» How to Get Rid of Paranoid Conspiracy Theorists
Today at 12:40 am by PurpleSkyz

» The Great Pacific Garbage Patch is now twice the size of Texas and it’s rapidly getting bigger
Today at 12:38 am by PurpleSkyz

» The Plan; 5G, WiFi, Particle Beam Weapons, Skynet… How Close Are We?
Today at 12:23 am by PurpleSkyz

» ‘March for Our Lives’ gun protests world-wide on Mar 24.18
Today at 12:21 am by PurpleSkyz

» Updates Pole Shift imminent The Safe Zones, Poles May Flip & Things Could Get Really Bad
Yesterday at 11:28 pm by PurpleSkyz

» According to a New Theory, People With RH-Negative Blood Don’t Come From Earth
Yesterday at 11:13 pm by PurpleSkyz

» Mysteries surround a 16th century text on magic connected to John Dee that legend says carries a curse
Yesterday at 8:39 pm by PurpleSkyz

Yesterday at 8:29 pm by 4-truth

» NEW BOOK BY TS CALADAN to be published: 2099: Transia~
Yesterday at 8:29 pm by PurpleSkyz

» Mercury Retrograde in Aries ~ Catalyst for Change
Yesterday at 8:14 pm by PurpleSkyz

» Mysterious sky phenomenon spotted high above earth - Grayling
Yesterday at 8:02 pm by PurpleSkyz

» I spray my chemtrails at night!
Yesterday at 6:28 pm by Consciousness Of Economic

Yesterday at 11:40 am by PurpleSkyz

»  Why Trump Signed the Budget By Anna Von Reitz plus more
Yesterday at 11:36 am by PurpleSkyz

» Huge crack opens in Kenya’s Rift Valley, Volcano’s and Magnetic Anomalies
Yesterday at 11:22 am by PurpleSkyz

» Something's NOT Right Here... Atacama Mummy
Yesterday at 10:52 am by PurpleSkyz

You are not connected. Please login or register

Out Of Mind » GALACTIC AWARENESS » UFO DISCLOSURE, ISS, MUFON, SETI & NASA » Europa’s ET Life Hotspots Identified –NASA

Europa’s ET Life Hotspots Identified –NASA

Go down  Message [Page 1 of 1]


Europa’s ET Life Hotspots Identified –NASA

2 Votes
April 15, 2013

Europa’s ET Life Hotspots Identified –NASA

New analysis of observations made more than a decade ago by NASA’s Galileo mission to Jupiter helps identify places where Jupiter’s moon Europa
exposes material churned up from inside the moon. “We have found the
regions where charged electrons and ions striking the surface would have
done the most, and the least, chemical processing of materials emplaced
at the surface from the interior ocean,” said J. Brad Dalton of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, lead author of the report published recently in the journal Planetary and Space Science.
“That tells us where to look for materials representing the most
pristine ocean composition, which would be the best places to target
with a lander or study with an orbiter.”

Europa is about the size of Earth’s moon and, like our moon, keeps
the same side toward the planet it orbits. Picture a car driving in
circles around a mountain with its left-side windows always facing the

Europa’s orbit around Jupiter is filled with charged, energetic
particles tied to Jupiter’s powerful magnetic field. Besides electrons,
these particles include ions of sulfur and oxygen originating from
volcanic eruptions on Io, a neighboring moon. The magnetic field
carrying these energetic particles sweeps around Jupiter faster than
Europa orbits Jupiter, in the same direction: about 10 hours per circuit
for the magnetic field versus about 3.6 days for Europa’s orbit.

So, instead of our mountain-circling car getting bugs on the front
windshield, the bugs are plastered on the back of the car by a “wind”
from behind going nearly nine times faster than the car. Europa has a
“leading hemisphere” in front and a “trailing hemisphere” in back.

Earlier studies had found more sulfuric acid being produced toward
the center of the trailing hemisphere than elsewhere on Europa’s
surface, interpreted as resulting from chemistry driven by sulfur ions
bombarding the icy surface. Dalton and his co-authors at JPL and at Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory,
Laurel, Md., examined data from observations by Galileo’s near infrared
mapping spectrometer of five widely distributed areas of Europa’s

The spectra of reflected light from frozen material on the surface
enabled them to distinguish between relatively pristine water and
sulfate hydrates. These included magnesium and sodium sulfate salt
hydrates, and hydrated sulfuric acid. They compared the distributions of
these substances with models of how the influxes of energetic electrons
and of sulfur and oxygen ions are distributed around the surface of
Europa. The concentration of frozen sulfuric acid on the surface varies
greatly, they found. It ranges from undetectable levels near the center
of the leading hemisphere, to more than half of the surface materials
near the center of the heavily bombarded trailing hemisphere. The
concentration was closely related to the amount of electrons and sulfur
ions striking the surface.

“The close correlation of electron and ion fluxes with the sulfuric
acid hydrate concentrations indicates that the surface chemistry is
affected by these charged particles,” says Dalton. “If you are
interested in the composition and habitability of the interior ocean,
the best places to study would be the parts of the leading hemisphere we
have identified as receiving the fewest electrons and having the lowest
sulfuric acid concentrations.”

Surface deposits in these areas are most likely to preserve the
original chemical compounds that erupted from the interior. Dalton
suggests that any future spacecraft missions to Europa should target
these deposits for study from orbit, or even attempt to land there. *
“The darkest material, on the trailing hemisphere, is probably the
result of externally-driven chemical processing, with little of the
original oceanic material intact,” said Dalton. “While investigating the
products of surface chemistry driven by charged particles is still
interesting from a scientific standpoint, there is a strong push within
the community to characterize the contents of the ocean and determine
whether it could support life. These kinds of places just might be the
windows that allow us to do that.”

The graphic below of Jupiter’s moon Europa maps a relationship
between the amount of energy deposited onto the moon from
charged-particle bombardment and the chemical contents of ice deposits
on the surface in five areas of the moon (labeled A through E).

Journal reference: Planetary and Space Science

The Daily Galaxy via JPL/NASA

Europa’s ET Life Hotspots Identified –NASA.

Thanks to:


Back to top  Message [Page 1 of 1]

Permissions in this forum:
You cannot reply to topics in this forum