Invention Secrecy and the Problem With Patents
Did you know that invention secrecy is at an all time high? Did you know that the U.S. Government classifies over 500 million pages of documents each year? Justification for the mass classification of information is (apparently) done for the sake of “national security,” but as we know:
“The dangers of excessive and unwarranted concealment of pertinent facts far outweigh the dangers that are cited to justify them. There is a very grave danger that an announced need for an increased level of security will be seized upon by those anxious to expand its meaning to the very limits of censorship and concealment. That I do not tend to permit, so long as it’s in my control.” – JFK (source)
The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office is supposed to legally protect the inventions of entrepreneurs and companies, some of whom have developed groundbreaking technology. Unfortunately, it doesn’t work that way, as a number of documents obtained via the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) reveal how the Patent Office has been using a secret system to withhold the approval of some applications.
A great example comes in the form of a 50-page document that was obtained by Kilpatrick Towsend & Stockton, LLP, who commonly represent major tech companies that include Apple, Google, and Twitter (to name a few). You can view that entire document HERE.
The program delaying patent applications is called the Sensitive Application Warning System (SWAS). Usually, when an application is submitted for a patent approval, it requires a couple of examiners who work with the Patent office to go through their process of approval. This process usually takes approximately 1 to 2 years, but applications that are filed in SAWS must be approved by several people, and can be delayed for a number of years.
One great example (out of many) of delayed patent applications comes from Dr. Gerald F. Ross. He filed a patent application for a new invention he had devised to defeat the jamming of electromagnetic transmissions at specified frequencies. It was not until June 17, 2014 (almost 37 years later) that this patent was granted (source).
According to the Federation of American Scientists, a group of renowned scientists from various fields that was founded by many of the Manhattan Project scientists who wanted to prevent nuclear war, there were more than 5000 inventions that were under secrecy orders at the end of Fiscal Year 2014 (source).
This is all made possible by something called the “Invention Secrecy Act.” It was written up in 1951 and states that patent applications on new inventions can be subject to secrecy orders. These orders can restrict their publication if government agencies believe that their disclosure would be harmful to national security (source)(source).
As mentioned earlier, “national security” has become an excuse and justification for the classification of a large amount of information on a variety of topics that the public is deliberately kept in the dark about. Apparently, many of these projects and inventions go far above and beyond presidential knowledge.
“It is ironic that the U.S. should be fighting monstrously expensive wars allegedly to bring democracy to those countries, when it itself can no longer claim to be called a democracy when trillions, and I mean thousands of billions of dollars, have been spent on projects which both congress and the commander in chief know nothing about.” – Paul Hellyer, Former Canadian Defence Minister (source)
We don’t really know what other type of technologies are under restriction under the Invention Secrecy Act, but a previous list from 1971 was obtained by researcher Michael Ravnitzky. Most of the technology listed seems to be related to various military applications. You can view that list HERE (source).
As Steven Aftergood from the Federation of American Scientists reports:
“The 1971 list indicates that patents for solar photovoltaic generators were subject to review and possible restriction if the photovoltaics were more than 20% efficient. Energy conversion systems were likewise subject to review and possible restriction if they offered conversion efficiencies in excess of 70-80%” (source).
British EmDrive inventor Roger Shawyer has had his latest patent application for a next-generation superconducting thruster published by the UK Intellectual Property Office (IPO), showing that his development of the controversial space propulsion technology is going ahead.
The patent, available here, describes a thruster that features a single flat superconducting plate on one end, while the other end is a unique shaped plate that is non-superconducting.
In order to minimise the internal Doppler shift (the change in frequency or wavelength of a wave for an observer moving relative to its source), circular polarisation and a phase-locked loop control the microwave input to the thruster, which maximises thrust as it accelerates.
Shawyer told IBTimes UK that he submitted the patent for the next-generation microwave thrusters 18 months ago, and that the patent is significant as it is currently very difficult – not to mention expensive – to produce a shaped non-superconducting end plate, since it has to be mounted on a sapphire substrate.
"This is pretty significant because it enables you to easily manufacture these things, and we want to produce thousands of them," he said. "The patent makes the construction of a viable superconducting thruster easier, and it will produce a lot of thrust."
2016: A big year for EmDrive
The EmDrive is the invention of British scientist Roger Shawyer, who proposed in 1999 that based on the theory of special relativity, electricity converted into microwaves and fired within a truncated cone-shaped closed metal cavity causes the microwave particles to exert more force on the flat surface at the large end of the cone (i.e. there is less combined particle momentum at the narrow end due to a reduction in group particle velocity), thereby generating thrust.
His critics say that according to the law of conservation of momentum, his theory cannot work as in order for a thruster to gain momentum in one direction, a propellant must be expelled in the opposite direction, and the EmDrive is a closed system.
However, Shawyer claims that following fundamental physics involving the theory of special relativity, the EmDrive does in fact preserve the law of conservation of momentum and energy.
Whether the technology actually works, there is no denying that 2016 has been a big year for the EmDrive. In mid-September, a respected space propulsion funding body in the US held a conference that included half a day dedicated to discussions about the EmDrive, led by a number of physicists, engineers and researchers.
Just before this, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) confirmed that it had peer-reviewed and accepted a paper on the EmDrive by Nasa Eagleworks researchers, which will be published in December 2016.
The researchers first posted on the Nasa Spaceflight forum in April 2015 and in November said they had succeeded in achieving thrust with the microwave thruster they built, although they didn't know how. In March, the researchers claimed that the paper was going through peer review, although they didn't know when it would be published.
There has been a great deal of debate over whether the EmDrive actually works. Many academics in the international space community continue to believe that it is complete nonsense, as the technology violates the law of conservation of momentum, and thus our understanding of physics.
In the meantime, Roger Shawyer, the British engineer/scientist who invented the EmDrive concept in 1999, is working with an unnamed UK aerospace company to develop the second generation of EmDrive, which will produce thrust many orders of magnitude greater than that observed by Eagleworks or any other laboratory.
Millions of pounds at stake on this patent
"The patent process is a very significant process, it's not like an academic peer review where everyone hides behind an anonymous review, it's all out in the open. This is a proper professional way of establishing prior ownership done by professionals in the patent office, and in order to publish my patent application, they had to first carry out a thorough examination of the physics in order to establish that the invention does not contravene the laws of physics," stressed Shawyer.
"There's millions of pounds at stake on this particular patent."
Shawyer has so far had four patents granted by the IPO – the first, GB2229865, was granted on 5 May 1993 and described the basic theory and construction of a cylindrical thruster with a shaped internal dielectric.
The second, GB2334761, granted on 21 March 2000, described the theory and construction of a tapered thruster with a cylindrical dielectric. This is essentially the same basic idea behind the NASA Eagleworks thruster that has been undergoing tests over the last two years.
The third patent, GB2399601, was granted on 13 March 2003, describing a second-generation EmDrive that uses no dielectric and employs superconducting technology to achieve high thrust.
Shawyer also has another patent still undergoing the patent review process – on 6 February 2013, the patent GB2493361 was published by the IPO, describing a thruster that uses shaped end plates and superconducting technology as a means of controlling the microwave input to maintain thrust under acceleration.
For more information about electromagnetic propulsion see [url=http://nexusilluminati.blogspot.com/search/label/electromagnetic propulsion]http://nexusilluminati.blogspot.com/search/label/electromagnetic%20propulsion[/url]