Latest topics
» WAS MINNESOTA ANOTHER FALSE FLAG?
Optogenetics and your brain: researchers study the therapeutic potential of light EmptyToday at 7:43 pm by topspin2

» POOPness for MAY 29: A PLACE TO CALL HOME - OH POOR ME SEND ME MONEY SUCKERS
Optogenetics and your brain: researchers study the therapeutic potential of light EmptyToday at 5:43 pm by PurpleSkyz

» United Nations Launches Website Promoting ‘New World Order’ Amidst Coronavirus Pandemic
Optogenetics and your brain: researchers study the therapeutic potential of light EmptyToday at 5:35 pm by PurpleSkyz

» Is there evidence that blood types and personality traits are connected?
Optogenetics and your brain: researchers study the therapeutic potential of light EmptyToday at 5:29 pm by PurpleSkyz

» Feds GDPNow Plummets To -51.2%, 47% Small Businesses Expect To Close Permanently, Spending Collapse
Optogenetics and your brain: researchers study the therapeutic potential of light EmptyToday at 5:19 pm by Consciousness Of Economic

» A Women Gets Her Contact Tracer Certificates and Tells All
Optogenetics and your brain: researchers study the therapeutic potential of light EmptyToday at 5:18 pm by Consciousness Of Economic

» WHAT TheirMEDIA WILL NOT TELL YOU the PLAN Unrolls on Schedule
Optogenetics and your brain: researchers study the therapeutic potential of light EmptyToday at 5:16 pm by Consciousness Of Economic

» Proxima b is more Earth-like than we thought
Optogenetics and your brain: researchers study the therapeutic potential of light EmptyToday at 5:01 pm by PurpleSkyz

» Live: SpaceX Crew Dragon launch 2nd attempt
Optogenetics and your brain: researchers study the therapeutic potential of light EmptyToday at 4:59 pm by PurpleSkyz

» Catching up on oceans, rivers and research during COVID-19
Optogenetics and your brain: researchers study the therapeutic potential of light EmptyToday at 3:56 pm by PurpleSkyz

» PSYCHOLOGICAL OPERATIONS/Go Army
Optogenetics and your brain: researchers study the therapeutic potential of light EmptyToday at 2:45 pm by Consciousness Of Economic

» #QTard Drama Theater - Escape plus MORE
Optogenetics and your brain: researchers study the therapeutic potential of light EmptyToday at 9:57 am by PurpleSkyz

» Why Was Wuhan Lab Locked Down When Outbreak Began?
Optogenetics and your brain: researchers study the therapeutic potential of light EmptyToday at 9:54 am by PurpleSkyz

» Dr. Kendrick: I’ve Signed Death Certificates During Covid-19. Here’s Why You Can’t Trust Any of the Statistics on the Number of Victims
Optogenetics and your brain: researchers study the therapeutic potential of light EmptyToday at 9:46 am by PurpleSkyz

» NASA cuts live feed after showing alleged Black Knight Satellite
Optogenetics and your brain: researchers study the therapeutic potential of light EmptyToday at 9:42 am by PurpleSkyz

» RIOTS - someone is supplying rioters with pallet loads of bricks can you guess (((who?))) plus MORE
Optogenetics and your brain: researchers study the therapeutic potential of light EmptyToday at 9:38 am by PurpleSkyz

» The Principlies of Propaganda by Goebbels
Optogenetics and your brain: researchers study the therapeutic potential of light EmptyToday at 8:22 am by nairatmya@hushmail.com

» Dave Schmidt (Meta 1 Coin Scam) Zoom Meeting Just Happened! If We Know About It, So Does The SEC!!!
Optogenetics and your brain: researchers study the therapeutic potential of light EmptyYesterday at 5:03 pm by Carl Spackler

» Former Minnesota Police Officer Derek Chauvin Arrested in Death of George Floyd!!! FINALLY!!!!
Optogenetics and your brain: researchers study the therapeutic potential of light EmptyYesterday at 4:23 pm by PurpleSkyz

» UFO News ~ Mysterious UFO Captured Before Disappearing over Lima (Peru) plus MORE
Optogenetics and your brain: researchers study the therapeutic potential of light EmptyYesterday at 4:14 pm by PurpleSkyz







***********

CLICK THE SUBSCRIBE BUTTON BELOW TO RECEIVE OUR DAILY NEWSLETTER

A 2ND EMAIL COMPLETES THE ACTIVATION PROCESS




CLICK THE PURPLE BUTTON TO VIEW OUR LATEST POSTS







You are not connected. Please login or register

OUT OF MIND » EARTH AWARENESS » SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY » Optogenetics and your brain: researchers study the therapeutic potential of light

Optogenetics and your brain: researchers study the therapeutic potential of light

Go down  Message [Page 1 of 1]

PurpleSkyz

PurpleSkyz
Admin
Optogenetics and your brain: researchers study the therapeutic potential of light Optogenetics-picture


Optogenetics and your brain: researchers study the therapeutic potential of light




Can light restore vision to blind people and help treat paralysis in patients with Parkinson’s disease? German researchers have recently examined the possibility of stimulating light-sensitive proteins to achieve therapeutic effects on various health conditions.
Optogenetics is a technique that manages processes in the brain through light-based stimulation. It achieves its effects through light-controlled proteins like channelrhodopsin-2, which activate when they come into contact with photons.
Channelrhodopsin-2 serves as an ion channel for the cellular membrane of unicellular green algae. It and other similar proteins serve as a mix of gate and gatekeeper for the cell – they determine whether or not an ion may pass through the layer.
In the presence of sufficient photons, light-controlled ion channels unlock the gate to the cell. Ions pass through the open channel and get used in vital cellular processes such as photosynthesis.
“It is feasible that light might be used to make blind people see or to treat agitated paralysis in Parkinson’s patients,” remarked Ruhr-University Bochum (RUB) researcher Klaus Gerwert. He served as an author of the study.
How does channelrhodopsin-2 achieve the effects needed for optogenetic therapy?
Optogenetics and your brain: researchers study the therapeutic potential of light IStock_neurons

Gerwert, his RUB colleagues, and their counterparts at Humboldt University of Berlin (HU) investigated how channelrhodopsin-2 functions when getting stimulated by light. They learned much about its mode of action.
Discovered by Max Planck Institute of Biophysics researcher Peter Hegemann and discussed in a 2003 study, channelrhodopsin-2 is a “directly light-gated cation-selective membrane channel .” It responds to direct exposure to light and decides whether or not a cation – an ion with a positive charge – may enter the cell.
Channelrhodopsin-2 is the linchpin of optogenetics. Researchers believe it is possible to attach this light-controlled protein to a nerve cell, thereby allowing them to control the neuron.
Once channelrodopsin-2 is hooked up to a neuron, it gets activated by shining a light on it. The light-controlled protein opens the ion channels of the cell membrane.
The influx of cations through the open ion channel will activate processes inside the cell.
While experts knew the ion channel would open, they didn’t know the specifics behind channelrodopsin-2’s activation. That prevented them from getting the protein to achieve specific effects.
“But it is precisely the understanding of the molecular reactions in the protein and of the ionic conductivity resulting thereof that is essential for optimising the protein for its potential applications,” explained Gerwert.
The longer the light stimulation, the less effective channelrodopsin-2 becomes
The RUB and HU researchers used several methods to determine the details behind the activation of the channelrodopsin-2 ion channel. To observe the process, they used Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gathered data over different intervals of time.
Next, they ran computer simulations of the biomolecules. Finally, they performed electrophysiological tests.
Their experimental results showed that light stimulation activated two parallel paths in channelrodopsin-2 . One of these structures activated the ion channel and produced the effect desired by optogenetics.
The other path generated a weak stream of protons. Over increasing periods of exposure to light, this parallel structure grew stronger until it eventually displaced the channel activation.
When that happened, channelrodopsin-2 began to lose its ability to keep the channel open for cations. If it was attached to a neuron, the sudden decrease in the supply of ions would weaken the activity of the cell.
For their latest study, the RUB researchers drew from their earlier investigation of light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin. Not only did they uncover the mode of activation of the bacterial molecule, but they also found similarities between it and channelrhodopsin-2.

For full references please use source link below.



  

Back to top  Message [Page 1 of 1]

Permissions in this forum:
You cannot reply to topics in this forum