Latest topics
» #Q Anon: CARPET BOMBS !!! MOAB COMING! PEDO ARREST UPDATE! plus more
Today at 8:30 am by PurpleSkyz

» Deep State Unmasked: DOJ Official Resists ‘From Inside’ and ‘Can’t Get Fired’
Today at 8:24 am by PurpleSkyz

» POOFness for SEPT 19: MIDWEEK BY ZAP GHOULKOWSKI THE DONATION SCAMMER
Today at 8:19 am by PurpleSkyz

» FEMA TAKEOVER & THE PRESIDENTIAL ALERT SYSTEM
Yesterday at 5:43 pm by PurpleSkyz

» DUTCHSINSE QUITS FORECASTING
Yesterday at 5:34 pm by PurpleSkyz

» What happened to Jeff Rense?
Yesterday at 2:14 pm by PurpleSkyz

» Separations for the next phase are completed
Yesterday at 1:02 pm by PurpleSkyz

» James Gilliland - As You Wish BBS Talk Radio - Saturday 9/15/2018 (Live Video) With Clyde Lewis.
Yesterday at 12:59 pm by PurpleSkyz

» UFO News ~ A lot of UFOs in the orbit of our Sun plus MORE
Yesterday at 12:56 pm by PurpleSkyz

» NIBIRU News ~ WHAT WILL IT TAKE FOR THE PUBLIC TO SEE? plus MORE
Yesterday at 12:52 pm by PurpleSkyz

» Schizoid Personality Disorder: Symptoms, Causes and Ways to Deal with It
Yesterday at 12:45 pm by PurpleSkyz

»  My Bad Attitude by Anna Von Reitz plus more
Yesterday at 12:43 pm by PurpleSkyz

» #Q Anon: Q ANON:PANIC IN DC! ROTHSCHILD SKULL ISSUES! EPSTEIN ISLAND! plus more
Yesterday at 12:40 pm by PurpleSkyz

» Karen Hudes ~ Network of Global Corporate Control 9 18 18
Yesterday at 12:35 pm by PurpleSkyz

» The Awakening & How They Wish To Crush It - David Icke
Yesterday at 12:34 pm by PurpleSkyz

» Ex-CIA Officer & ITNJ Chief Counsel About the ELITE Child Trafficking Rings
Yesterday at 11:10 am by PurpleSkyz

» Are Vaccine Manufacturers Concealing Deaths Caused by Vaccines by Manipulating Post-marketing Data?
Yesterday at 10:59 am by PurpleSkyz

» This Is How They Can ‘Turn Off Your Chip
Yesterday at 10:56 am by PurpleSkyz

» Project Camelot - SIMON PARKES: LATEST NEWS AND COMMENTARY
Yesterday at 12:18 am by PurpleSkyz

» More on the Hiker that dies not too far away from the Solar Observatory, New Mexico
Tue Sep 18, 2018 11:45 pm by PurpleSkyz

CLICK THE SUBSCRIBE BUTTON BELOW TO RECEIVE OUR DAILY NEWSLETTER

A 2ND EMAIL COMPLETES THE ACTIVATION PROCESS




CLICK THE PURPLE BUTTON TO VIEW OUR LATEST POSTS





CONTACT PURPLESKYZ
FOR DETAILS


Key Word Topics:
11:11, Aliens, Antarctica, Ascension, Assange, Auras, Bankers, Bitcoin, Blood Type, Booms, BRICS, Cabal, Cannabis, CBD, CERN, Chemtrails, CME's, Consciousness, Conspiracy Theories, Crypto Currency, Crystals, Dinar, Dinar Scam, Disclosure, Earthquakes, EMF, Environment, ESP, False Flags, Federal Reserve, Flooding, Fluoride, Fracking, Fukushima, GMO's, Herbs, History, Holistic, Illuminati, IMF, ISS, Ley Lines, Lucid Dreaming, Mandela Effect, Medical, Meteor, Monsanto, Morgellons, NASA, Nature, Nesara, Nibiru, Night Sky, NWO, Organic, Pizzagate, Planet X, Predictive Programming, Protests, Psychic, Q Anon, Radiation, Remote Viewing, RH Negative Blood, RV, Sacred Geometry, Science, SETI, Shift, Sink Holes, Smart Meters, Space Force, Space X, Sun Simulator, Synchronicity, Technology, TDA, THC, UFO, Vatican, Vaccines, Volcano, WIFI, Wikileaks

You are not connected. Please login or register

Out Of Mind » PERCEPTUAL AWARENESS » POWER TOOLS » "Quartz" crystals at the Earth's core power its magnetic field

"Quartz" crystals at the Earth's core power its magnetic field

Go down  Message [Page 1 of 1]

PurpleSkyz

avatar
Admin
"Quartz" crystals at the Earth's core power its magnetic field




Scientists at the Earth-Life Science Institute at the Tokyo Institute of Technology reported in Nature yesterday their unexpected discoveries about the Earth's core. The findings include insights into the source of energy driving the Earth's magnetic field, factors governing the cooling of the core and its chemical composition, and conditions that existed during the formation of the Earth.
The Earth's core consists mostly of a huge ball of liquid metal lying at 3 000 km (1 864 miles) beneath its surface, surrounded by a mantle of hot rock. Notably, at such great depths, both the core and mantle are subject to extremely high pressures and temperatures. Furthermore, research indicates that the slow creeping flow of hot buoyant rocks -moving several centimeters per year - carries heat away from the core to the surface, resulting in a very gradual cooling of the core over geological time. However, the degree to which the Earth's core has cooled since its formation is an area of intense debate amongst Earth scientists.
In 2013 Kei Hirose, now Director of the Earth-Life Science Institute (ELSI) at the Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech), reported that the Earth's core may have cooled by as much as 1 000 °C (1 832 °F) since its formation 4.5 billion years ago. This large amount of cooling would be necessary to sustain the geomagnetic field, unless there was another as yet undiscovered source of energy. These results were a major surprise to the deep Earth community, and created what Peter Olson of Johns Hopkins University referred to as, "the New Core Heat Paradox", in an article published in Science.
Core cooling and energy sources for the geomagnetic field were not the only difficult issues faced by the team. Another unresolved matter was uncertainty about the chemical composition of the core. "The core is mostly iron and some nickel, but also contains about 10% of light alloys such as silicon, oxygen, sulfur, carbon, hydrogen, and other compounds," Hirose, lead author of the new study to be published in the journal Nature. "We think that many alloys are simultaneously present, but we don't know the proportion of each candidate element."
Now, in this latest research carried out in Hirose's lab at ELSI, the scientists used precision cut diamonds to squeeze tiny dust-sized samples to the same pressures that exist at the Earth's core. The high temperatures at the interior of the Earth were created by heating samples with a laser beam. By performing experiments with a range of probable alloy compositions under a variety of conditions, Hirose's and colleagues are trying to identify the unique behavior of different alloy combinations that match the distinct environment that exists at the Earth's core.
The search of alloys began to yield useful results when Hirose and his collaborators began mixing more than one alloy. "In the past, most research on iron alloys in the core has focused only on the iron and a single alloy," says Hirose. "But in these experiments, we decided to combine two different alloys containing silicon and oxygen, which we strongly believe exist in the core."

Experimental result on crystallization of liquid Fe-Si-O at 133 gigapascals and about 4,000 kelvins, corresponding to the condition at the uppermost core. The X-ray elemental map shows the SiO2 crystals (purple) were formed from liquid (green) at low temperature part.
The researchers were surprised to find that when they examined the samples in an electron microscope, the small amounts of silicon and oxygen in the starting sample had combined together to form silicon dioxide crystals - the same composition as the mineral quartz found at the surface of the Earth.
"This result proved important for understanding the energetics and evolution of the core," says John Hernlund of ELSI, a co-author of the study. "We were excited because our calculations showed that crystallization of silicon dioxide crystals from the core could provide an immense new energy source for powering the Earth's magnetic field." The additional boost it provides is plenty enough to solve Olson's paradox.
The team has also explored the implications of these results for the formation of the Earth and conditions in the early Solar System. Crystallization changes the composition of the core by removing dissolved silicon and oxygen gradually over time. Eventually, the process of crystallization will stop when then core runs out of its ancient inventory of either silicon or oxygen.
"Even if you have silicon present, you can't make silicon dioxide crystals without also having some oxygen available," says ELSI scientist George Helffrich, who modeled the crystallization process for this study. "But this gives us clues about the original concentration of oxygen and silicon in the core, because only some silicon:oxygen ratios are compatible with this model."
Source: Tokyo Tech
Reference:

  • "Crystallization of silicon dioxide and compositional evolution of the Earth's core" - Kei Hirose, Guillaume Morard, Ryosuke Sinmyo, Koichio Umemoto, John Hernlund, George Helffrich & Stéphane Labrosse - Nature (2017) - DOI dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature21367

Featured image credit: Hirose et al.

Thanks to: https://watchers.news



  

Back to top  Message [Page 1 of 1]

Permissions in this forum:
You cannot reply to topics in this forum