Latest topics
» MIDWEEK BY ZAP SCAMKOWSKI THE LAPIS POISON GHOUL- DANGER DO NOT BUY THIS!!!
Today at 1:00 am by 4-truth

» The Mysterious Bush-Clinton Funeral Envelope and Catch 22 Game Theory
Yesterday at 8:49 pm by PurpleSkyz

» "Undeniable" Massive Unknown Craft Rendezvous With SpaceX's Dragon!
Yesterday at 8:43 pm by PurpleSkyz

» FADE to BLACK Jimmy Church w/ Kerry Cassidy : Project Camelot
Yesterday at 8:13 pm by PurpleSkyz

» #LIVE #QANON - #JaredRand - Time for Change Nov 14, 2018 @potus
Yesterday at 5:59 pm by LadyDragon

» #Q Anon Drama Theater: SerialBrain2 - The Reason Trump Tweeted Smocking Gun plus more
Yesterday at 5:18 pm by PurpleSkyz

» Several Strange Black Objects Surrounding The Curiosity Rover On Mars?
Yesterday at 5:13 pm by PurpleSkyz

» #LIVE #QANON #LadyDragon + #Meditation with #JaredRand @potus
Yesterday at 4:20 pm by LadyDragon

» Carrying Stones & Digging Holes Radio Show December 8, 2018
Yesterday at 4:10 pm by Consciousness Of Economic

» Graham Hancock Recently Drank Ayahuasca and Returned with this Important Message for Humanity
Yesterday at 1:12 pm by PurpleSkyz

» Why are space Aliens always naked? lol :)
Yesterday at 12:45 pm by PurpleSkyz

» UFO News ~ Large Black Object Captured Hovering Over The Harquahala Mountain Range In Arizona plus MORE
Yesterday at 12:43 pm by PurpleSkyz

» 12 Easy Ways To Remove Acid Build-up From Your Body, Alkalize Your PH And Beat Disease
Yesterday at 12:35 pm by PurpleSkyz

» CHICKENPOX NOW "DEADLY"??
Yesterday at 12:32 pm by PurpleSkyz

» CERN is Shut Down and the Earth Magnetic Frequency Raises on 11/11/11
Yesterday at 12:23 pm by PurpleSkyz

» Linda Moulton Howe - John Greenwald
Yesterday at 12:21 pm by PurpleSkyz

» Ancient Elongated Skulls Of Peru And Bolivia Full Lecture
Yesterday at 12:19 pm by PurpleSkyz

»  Another monster quake rocks the Southern Hemisphere as magnitude 7.1 - strikes the South Sandwich Islands.
Yesterday at 12:14 pm by PurpleSkyz

» Jeff and Catherine Austin Fitts - Massive Missing Money And The Great Game
Yesterday at 12:10 pm by PurpleSkyz

» Emery Smith Con Man? Corey Goode Good Guy?
Yesterday at 12:02 pm by PurpleSkyz

» #LIVE - #LadyDragon + #Morning #News
Yesterday at 11:58 am by LadyDragon

» Suppressed Ancient Underwater Discoveries That Could Rewrite History
Tue Dec 11, 2018 6:29 pm by PurpleSkyz


CLICK THE SUBSCRIBE BUTTON BELOW TO RECEIVE OUR DAILY NEWSLETTER

A 2ND EMAIL COMPLETES THE ACTIVATION PROCESS




CLICK THE PURPLE BUTTON TO VIEW OUR LATEST POSTS




You are not connected. Please login or register

Out Of Mind » GALACTIC AWARENESS » HISTORIES MYSTERIES » Why Are There 365 Days in a Year? Organizing Dates with an Ancient Egyptian Calendar

Why Are There 365 Days in a Year? Organizing Dates with an Ancient Egyptian Calendar

Go down  Message [Page 1 of 1]

PurpleSkyz

avatar
Admin
Why Are There 365 Days in a Year? Organizing Dates with an Ancient Egyptian Calendar

by Wu Mingren; Ancient Origins

The calendar is one of mankind’s most important inventions. Calendars allowed societies to organize time for religious, social, economic, and administrative purposes. The calendar, or rather, two sets of calendars, were invented by the ancient Egyptians. One of these was a lunar calendar, which was used mainly for the organization of religious festivals.

The other was a solar calendar, which was used for administrative purposes and in the day-to-day lives of ancient Egyptians. The solar calendar of the ancient Egyptians is seen as the first known calendar to divide each year into 365 days, hence it is the precursor to the Gregorian calendar that is used today.

A Lunar Calendar First

Detail of a star chart dating to the Middle Kingdom. Source: GPL

Whilst it is still a matter of debate, the ancient Egyptian calendar is speculated to have already been in use around 5000 years ago. This was a lunar calendar, and was used for all purposes until the invention of a solar calendar. This early calendar divided the year into 12 months, the length of each being dependent on the lunar cycle (normally 29 or 30 days). Each month began with the new moon and was named after the major festival celebrated within it.

As the lunar calendar was shorter than the solar one by 10 or 11 days, a 13th month, known also as an intercalary month, was added once every few years, so as to bring the calendar back in line with the agricultural seasons and religious festivals.

Nut, Egyptian goddess of the sky in the tomb of Ramses VI. (Hans Bernhard/CC BY SA 3.0)

Dividing the Seasons by the Sun

It was during a later period of ancient Egyptian history that a solar calendar came into use. This calendar divided the year into three seasons that revolved around the agricultural cycle – the Season of Flood, the Season of Sowing, and the Season of Summer. Each of these seasons in turn consisted of four months. The Egyptian months were divided into three periods of ten days, known as decades / decans (which corresponds to the seven day week that we use today). The last two days of each decade / decan were considered holidays (like our weekends), and the Egyptians were not required to work. Therefore, this resulted in a total of 360 days.

Calendar in the temple of Kom Ombo. (Ad Meskens/CC BY SA 3.0) The calendar shows the hieroglyphics for the days of the fourth month of the harvest and the first day of the flood. The hieroglyph Peht on 30 Mes. indicates the end of the harvest season. The five epagomenal days are not listed.

Five epagomenal days were then added to the end of each year, resulting in a 365 day calendar, the same number of days (almost) as the Gregorian calendar used in most parts of the world today. These epagomenal days were used to celebrate the birthdays of five gods – Osiris, Horus, Seth, Isis and Nephthys (in this order), during which the Egyptians were not expected to work. These five days were added so that the solar calendar and the astronomical year would be aligned. It has been suggested that the adoption of the solar calendar was meant to provide a more precise division of the years for administrative purposes.

Plowing farmer. (Public Domain) Ancient Egyptians had non-working ‘holidays’ on the birthdays of five gods – Osiris, Horus, Seth, Isis and Nephthys.

No Leap Day in Ancient Egyptian Calendars

Nevertheless, it seems that the ancient Egyptians did not have the concept of a ‘leap day’ that we have today. This meant the ancient Egyptian solar calendar missed a quarter of a day each year, causing it to slowly slip out of its proper position. Thus, 1461 Egyptian solar years (known as the Sothic cycle) were required for the calendar to return to its starting position. An attempt was made to correct this problem during the 3rd century BC.

In the Canopus Decree of 239 BC, the Ptolemaic pharaoh, Ptolemy III, attempted to add a 6th epagomenal day at the end of the solar year. This day was intended to honor the pharaoh and his wife as gods. The plan was soon abandoned, however, as it was resisted by the conservative Egyptian priesthood. Nevertheless, a ‘leap day’ was eventually implemented following the Roman conquest of Egypt in 30 BC.

Gold coin depicting Ptolemy III issued by Ptolemy IV to honor his deified father. (Public Domain) Ptolemy III tried to add an extra day in the year for Egyptians to honor the pharaoh and his wife as gods.

In short, the ancient Egyptian solar calendar was a very important contribution to humanity, as it is the precursor to the Gregorian calendar that is currently the most widely used calendar in the world. Whilst this calendar has a number of features that are recognizable today, several alterations had to be made over the millennia in order to arrive at the one most people use these days.

Detail of the tomb of Pope Gregory XIII celebrating the introduction of the Gregorian calendar. ( Public Domain )

References

Boddy-Evans, A., 2017. Ancient Egypt: Birthplace of Modern Calendar. [Online]
Available at: https://www.thoughtco.com/ancient-egypt-birthplace-of-modern-calendar-43706

Hill, J., 2010. Ancient Egyptian Calendars. [Online]
Available at: http://ancientegyptonline.co.uk/calendar.html

The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica, 2017. Egyptian calendar. [Online]
Available at: https://www.britannica.com/science/Egyptian-calendar

University College London, 2003. Festivals in the ancient Egyptian calendar. [Online]
Available at: http://www.ucl.ac.uk/museums-static/digitalegypt/ideology/festivaldates.html

www.ancient-egypt-online.com, 2017. The Ancient Egyptian Calendar. [Online]
Available at: http://www.ancient-egypt-online.com/ancient-egyptian-calendar.html

www.calendar-origins.com, 2017. Egyptian Calendar - Why 12 months in a year?. [Online]
Available at: http://www.calendar-origins.com/egyptian-calendar.html

www.crystalinks.com, 2017. Egyptian Calendars. [Online]
Available at: http://www.crystalinks.com/calendaregypt.html


Thanks to: http://www.riseearth.com



  

Back to top  Message [Page 1 of 1]

Permissions in this forum:
You cannot reply to topics in this forum